Juma Xipaia has been defending her individuals’s land within the Brazilian Amazon since she was 13, when her eyes have been opened to the impacts of the deliberate building of the close by Belo Monte hydroelectric dam advanced on her village. Situated on the Xingu River, Belo Monte, which started operations in 2016, displaced an estimated 20,000 to 40,000 individuals and finally diverted 85 % of the river’s regular water circulate away from hundreds of Indigenous and conventional fishing communities.
Nearly a decade after she realized she wanted to take a stand, Xipaia — a member of the Xipaya Indigenous group, which has 173 individuals residing on its conventional territory and plenty of others unfold throughout the area in different communities — grew to become chief of her village. Juma Xipaia, now 30 years outdated, was the primary lady to move an Indigenous group on the center reaches of the Xingu River, a serious tributary of the Amazon.
Xipaia has confronted a number of challenges, together with unlawful incursions by closely armed miners and loggers on Xipaya territory, which covers almost 700 sq. miles. Widespread unlawful gold mining has led to mercury air pollution of Xipaya rivers. As she has fought to guard the Xipaya and different Indigenous teams, and has battled corruption amongst a few of her fellow Indigenous leaders, Xipaia has confronted demise threats. By all of it, she has continued finding out to be a doctor and was one in all 40 Indigenous leaders to characterize Brazil on the COP26 local weather change convention in Scotland final 12 months.
In an interview with Yale Setting 360, Xipaia appears to be like again on the second she determined to turn into an activist, discusses the key threats the Xipaya and different Indigenous peoples face, and talks in regards to the insidious results of improvement initiatives like Belo Monte, which has led to company handouts of enormous portions of processed and non-traditional meals, weakening the Xipaya’s millennia-old lifestyle.
Yale Setting 360: What threats are you at the moment dealing with on the Xipaya Indigenous Territory?
Juma Xipaya: There’s the specter of the federal government, which not solely my village and my territory are dealing with. All Indigenous individuals and territories in Brazil are being extremely threatened and impacted by the genocidal insurance policies of the present authorities [of Jair Bolsonaro], a violence in opposition to Indigenous peoples that may be very a lot inspired.
However in contrast to different areas, the place their villages have been violently attacked by [arsonists], right here, in my territory, one of many greatest issues is said to unlawful mining contained in the close by Kuruaya Indigenous Reserve. Our greatest concern is with mercury [contaminating our water and food sources]. We’ve seen what has occurred to the Munduruku individuals, who’re our neighbors. We’ve seen their struggle, the entire strategy of denouncing [the contamination], and their concern not solely now with current, however with future generations. We see the impacts of mercury, and we’re involved. Subsequent to us there’s additionally the Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve, which is stuffed with unlawful miners and loggers. We suspect they’re already coming into our territory too.
Prior to now we carried out inspections, and so they made a distinction. Now, these miners and loggers are closely armed. They haven’t any downside with threatening us. They need confrontation. And we’re afraid. We see what occurs in different territories [violent attacks and murders of activists], and we all know it received’t be any completely different right here. Even if we’re very removed from the town of Altamira, we’re not free from these assaults or from the impacts of land grabbing, mining, logging, unlawful fishing.
“The Indigenous peoples have been by no means consulted about something concerning the Belo Monte dam.”
e360: How has the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam advanced affected your individuals and your land?
Xipaia: Together with the apparent environmental impacts of Belo Monte got here the impacts of its associated social packages. One of many packages with the best impression on Indigenous lands is the so-called “productive exercise program,” which led most communities to cease producing conventional meals after they obtained tons of industrialized meals. Since 2012, I’ve been denouncing the impression, not solely on Indigenous well being, but additionally on the territory itself due to the rubbish it created contained in the villages. We’ve a really excessive price of recent illnesses resembling diabetes, excessive ldl cholesterol, and even most cancers. In my village alone, there have been three family members who died of most cancers … The speed of melancholy may be very excessive, and so is the speed of tried suicide, together with in youngsters.
Prior to now, throughout the communities, the illnesses that existed have been influenza and malaria. Now there are a number of kinds of illnesses, many attributable to this subject of meals and consuming habits which were drastically modified right here within the Center Xingu area.
After which there’s the stress attributable to the presence of non-Indigenous individuals from the businesses that perform these packages on behalf of Belo Monte. The Indigenous peoples of the center Xingu have been by no means consulted about something concerning the Belo Monte dam. They determined to create the Indigenous element of the essential environmental plan with out our participation.
We’re speaking a few mission that has been on the desk for over 30 years through which there was no participation of, and no session with, Indigenous peoples. It was imposed, drastically altering not solely the social lifetime of the inhabitants, however the meals and the tradition. They constructed modern-material homes and tore down our conventional homes. They prompted division and battle amongst peoples and a really excessive price of co-opting and corruption of leaders.
e360: You first grew to become an activist while you have been very younger. What was the second that made you understand that was what you wished to do?
Xipaia: Once I began at round 13 years outdated, I didn’t even know what the phrase activist meant. I had no thought. I didn’t realize it existed. However one factor I did uncover was that Belo Monte was not an enormous waterfall, like that they had instructed us. It was the identical method that they had introduced the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam to us in 2004. We have been amazed. I bear in mind — I used to be very younger — seeing that a lot water and considering: Wow, what an enormous waterfall!
And once I began out as an activist, it was very a lot primarily based on the instance of different communities. In 2009, I participated within the first South American assembly of individuals affected by initiatives financed by BNDES [the Brazilian Development Bank, associated with the Ministry of the Economy]. And I discovered at this occasion that Belo Monte was additionally financed by BNDES. I heard experiences there from individuals from Bahia, Rondônia, Manaus, Espírito Santo — all completely different locations — individuals who have been dispossessed, individuals who have been assaulted, individuals who have seen homicide. And there was already the instance of Tucuruí [which inundated 925 square miles of rainforest, displacing Indigenous populations], so I assumed that Belo Monte can be no completely different, as a result of I noticed that the method was the identical. It simply modified places.
So it was primarily based on indignation. It was the hunt for justice. It was as a result of I understood early on that if we didn’t become involved, if we didn’t attempt to discover out what was occurring, the identical factor or worse may occur in my area. Particularly as a result of we had no thought what the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam was. To today, many don’t know what this nice enterprise is. I used to be fearful, as a result of right here we have now individuals of various ranges of understanding. We’ve some who perceive Portuguese very properly, and we have now some who’ve solely not too long ago been contacted.
“They determined about our lives… They made choices about our futures with out our direct participation.”
I discovered myself obliged to know and clarify to as many individuals as attainable what the hydroelectric dam was. And I understood that the struggle was mine too. I understood that each one earlier fights of our family members have been to defend our territory. There was no method to not become involved. I gave myself, physique and soul, to the struggle in opposition to Belo Monte — not solely in opposition to Belo Monte, however any sort of mission that goals not solely to impression Indigenous peoples, however animals as properly.
e360: You attended COP26. What did it get proper, and what did it get improper? What may have been achieved higher?
Xipaia: COP26 was the primary time we’ve seen such a big delegation of Indigenous peoples. There have been 40 leaders [from Brazil] and the bulk have been girls. For the primary time there was the most important participation of quilombolas [an Afro-Brazilian resident of quilombo settlements first established by those who escaped slavery] in historical past.
The one cause there have been so many people was as a result of there was a really giant mobilization that began with us, that got here from our organizations. It’s not as a result of we have been invited or dropped at this local weather dialogue, a lot in order that through the dialogue itself, through the decision-making, there was no participation of any conventional peoples. Others determined. They determined about our lives. They talked about our forests. They made choices about our futures with out our direct participation.
“They’re taking our house, taking away our land and, along with it, our desires and our tradition.”
So I imagine there must be higher involvement of the individuals. It must be democratized. Many individuals don’t know what this huge local weather occasion is all about. There’s no use holding this convention and gathering solely choose individuals to take part. This dialogue has to achieve the communities, it has to achieve each nation, it has to achieve all of the peoples and never be restricted to small teams or solely to governments. As a result of, as we will see with Brazil, governments don’t at all times characterize or defend the individuals.
e360: Indigenous peoples throughout Brazil and world wide are dealing with comparable threats to their lands and their lives. Is that this one thing we should always take a look at as one homogenous subject, or are they completely different points we should always think about individually?
Xipaia: I don’t assume they’re completely different. There’s an assault in opposition to our rights. Not simply an assault, however a regression within the rights of Indigenous peoples typically right here in Brazil. And these threats will not be only for my individuals, however for all Indigenous peoples, placing future generations in danger. The unlawful mining assaults, the invasions by unlawful loggers, they aren’t simply restricted to the territory of my individuals.
There’s oppression, a substantial amount of criminalization, a substantial amount of violence directed at Indigenous peoples. A lot in order that in some ethnic teams you see that they not have a territory to name their very own. Then they are saying that Indigenous individuals not have tradition. It’s not simply tradition. Land is life. Goals have been taken away.
Take a look at, for instance, the Guarani-Kaiowá individuals. They’ve a really excessive price of suicide amongst all ages, [particularly among young men]. That is violence. This can be a torture. They’re invading. They’re taking our house, taking away our land and, along with it, our desires and our tradition. And so they depart a unhappiness. They depart a starvation. They bring about demise onto our land.